An unordered list of the cards in PDF format, color, and printable at 5x8" size.

To use the images as props, printed copies can be randomly handed out to students during a class on karst. The students are asked to arrange themselves in a 3-dimensional form that best represents a karst landscape. Then students that have water cards are asked to move the water through the karst landscape, note, there are several possible ways water can move through, or slowed and retained, within the karst landscape. Other card holders such as the pollution types, scientists, water wells also should enter the landscape and describe their interactions with water and the karst features.


Cave with stream -- Drawing that shows a profile of a cave with a small stream flowing along the floor. Generally rapid water movement. Note that if pools form, some water could be retained in the cave for longer periods.

Dissappearing stream -- Surface drainage water enters the ground in large quantities. Potential to carry significant pollution into the subsurface.

Sources of drinking water -- List of several potential sources of drinking water. How are these affected by karst landforms and karst drainage?

Dry cave -- Cave with no flowing water. However, dripping water can enter the cave by infiltration of surface and ground water. Stalagmites and stalactites can form as a result. Dry caves can be at almost any elevation above the local ground water table. (See cliffview.jpg in the figures and photos section where the photo is taken from a cave entrance). Can be much older than the surrounding landscape.

Joints/Fractures -- Cracks such as joints and fractures and bedding planes, are openings that allow water to enter the rock and move more rapidly than it can through pore spaces. Water can travel long distances in short periods of time. As water dissolves the rock, the cracks become larger and take in more water. This process can take thousands to millions of years to develop large cave systems.

Infiltration -- Slow movement of water through pore spaces in soils and porous rocks.

Rain -- Representation of a principle source of surface and ground water.

Rivers/streams -- Representation of surface drainage, can be a source of water entering the ground and a receiver of water from the ground.

Runoff -- Water that travels across the ground surface towards more focused drainage such as a stream. Can carry away topsoil, various materials and chemicals contained in the topsoil, or material and items encountered in streets and parking lots.

Scientist -- Representation of people that study karst development, karst processes and ground water movement. One principal aim of the scientist is to determine where surface and ground waters travel in a karst landscape. This can help predict areas most likely to be affected if a pollution event occurs.

Sinkhole -- A closed depression on the land surface. Water entering a sinkhole moves downward into the ground, not across the land. Sinkholes in some landscapes can number in the thousands. Sinkholes may develop slowly by subsidence of the land surface gradually as material is transported by water through fractures (Quicktime video1) or quickly when a hole that has developed in the subsurface by sapping of material into fractures suddenly collapses. (Quicktime video2).

Springs -- A place where ground water that re-enters the surface drainage environment. Springs range from nearly invisibly to several hundred square feet in size and from slow seeps to large discharges of several thousand gallons per minute. As the landscape evolves and is eroded, caves and springs that once emptied into a stream may be abandoned, with only remnants visible at higher elevations in a valley wall.

Sources of pollution -- List of several potential sources of pollution. How are these affected by karst landforms? How does the pollution affect potential sources of drinking water? Does the type of pollution make a difference as it interacts with the karst landscape?

Surface/subsurface drainage -- Surface drainage basins do not always match with subsurface drainage pathways. They may intersect, cross, go in opposite directions or totally ignore each other.

Thick soil cover -- In some places, a thick soil may cover karst features making them almost unnoticable. Thick soils and soils with lots of clay, retard water movement into the ground by letting water infiltrate rather than flow along joints. Sandy soils allow water to infiltrate at a more rapid rate. Thick soils in a karst landscape may also be home to many sinkholes.

Water Well -- A principle method of obtaining water from the ground for drinking and other uses. Proper well construction in karst landscapes is of extreme importance to prevent water from the surface running down the well, preventing separated aquifers from being hydrologically connected through the well and pumping water from an appropriate unpolluted source.

 

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